The main reasons for claw horn diseases is lack of substances stimulating process of keratinization in feed, increased humidity, aggressive alkaline environment in stalls, injury of horn capsule and leg soft tissues, adynamia and lack of exercise as well as use of highly specialized dairy breeds of cattle with weak claw horn.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, heifer, claw horn, feed, keratinization, horn capsule, adynamia, exercise, claw horn, productivity, lameness, culling, lactation, herd rotation, horn growth and abrasion, destruction, s cross-linking reaction, sulfuric bridges, keratin chains, moisture capacity, hydrophily, amino acids, cystine, ammoniac alkalis, keratopolimer, sulfur-containing vitamins, biotin, thiamine, methylmethionine, calf, young animals, replacement cow calf, hydrokeratin, urease, lignin, orthopedic diseases, plantar horn, breeding bull, hoof baths, antiseptic substances, veterinary station, pen, necrobacillosis, diet, herd.
Studying behavioural responses in cows promotes competent herd management; thus, reduction of aggression in animals and improvement of milk productivity.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cattle, productivity, herd, population, milk, behavioural responses, hereditary factors, breed, orthogenesis, conditioned reflex, milking, cow, calves, cow calf, bull, stabled and tied housing, feed, feeding front, diet, smell, grazing, young animals, rumination, ruminants, overgrazing, aggression, temperament, herd hierarchy, milk yield, gregarious instinct.
Comfortable housing conditions and competent treatment of cow udder before and after milking promotes increase in productivity and minimizes risk of development of mastitis.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, milk, cow, mastitis, mammary gland, udder, hygiene, stall place, stall equipment, herd, animal, manure pass, milking, stress, Yolochka and Parallel milking machines, milking robot, pathogenic microflora, milking hall, milk yield, productivity, antiseptics, antibiotic, lactic and perlactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, nipple, disinfectant, infection, reusable and disposable napkins, bacteria, mamillar duct, microorganisms, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide, resistance, iodine, diet, glycerin, allantoin, lanolin, aloe vera, sphincter.
For optimum disinfection and improvement of bacterial background in calves’ premises, treatment with Virocid only once a week is sufficient.
Keywords: prevention, disinfection, calves, respiratory diseases of the mixed etiology, cow calf, insemination, lactation, viral diarrhea, infectious rhinotracheitis, paraflu-3, respiratory syncitial infection, bacteria, microflora, feed, laying, immunity, disinfection, bacterial background, «cold fog», aeration, replacement young animals, aerosol, nonionic surfactants, disinfectant, animal, reagent.
Addition in diets for milking cows of protected amino acids, for example, methionine and lysine, allows offsetting deficiency of protein and optimizing the use of feed nitrogen by the animals.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, crude protein, protein digestible in rumen, protein indigestible in rumen, nitrogen, rumen, productivity, milk yield, cow, microbial protein, milk, solids, diet, feed, feeding, limiting amino acids, protected lysine and methionine, manure.
During a remote round table, the experts expressed their opinion on condition of animal breeding in dairy cattle production.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cattle, cow, bull, bred heifer, Association of Holstein Cattle Producers, National Union of the Breeding Organisations, All-Russia Breeding Research Institute (VNIIPlem), breeding cattle production, qualification and certification of breeding animals, electronic identification, milk, milk yield, productivity, genetic material, boniter, pedigree certificate, genome, resistance, milking, RF Ministry of Agriculture.
With data on actual feed composition available, timely adjustment of diet is possible: adding necessary mineral and vitamin additives as well as developing targeted formulations of mixed feeds and premixes to meet animal requirements.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, partially mixed diet, animal, genetic potential, solids, metabolic energy, nutrient value, loose keeping, mixed feed, milking capacity, fleshiness, live weight, population, lactation, full-diet mix, feed table, overfeed, calving, crude protein, dry period.
Competent housing of animals, ¬physiologically necessary physical exercise, timely prevention and treatment of leg diseases are indispensable conditions for supporting health and high productivity of cattle.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, cattle, osteogenesis, hematopoiesis, physical inactivity, locomotor system, metabolism, claw horn, feed, physical exercise, milk yields, leg diseases, dung water, horn formation, productivity, functional clearing of claw horn, animal fixture, claw horn sole, foot baths, disinfection floor-mats, pathogenic microflora, lymph circulation, blood circulation, collagen, orthopedic pathologies.
For successful animal breeding, improvement of the existing breeds and early forecasting of the future productivity of dairy cattle, interrelation between milk yields and blood biochemical indicators are studied as they directly influence the process of lactogenesis.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, selection, enzymes, blood serum, correlation, breed, cow, productivity, biochemical blood indicators, lactogenesis, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, cholinesterase, amylase, γ-glutamine transferase, genes, DNA, proteins, milk yield, metabolites, daughter cows, father bulls, improvers, lactation, feeding.
To improve milk productivity and reproductive qualities of thoroughbred and mongrel high-yield cows, it is reasonable to support their fleshiness by the time of calving at a level of 3.5–3.75 points.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, bred heifer, first-calf heifer, milk, fat, protein, service period, productivity, calving, black-and-white breed, Dutch breed, Bestuzhev breed, Holsteinized cattle, reproductive function, reproductive qualities, insemination, fertilisation, lactation, condition, feed, diet, protein, carbohydrates, fat liver syndrome, ketosis, acidosis, anestrus, estral cycle, indifference period, embryos, culling, increasing milk yield, milk yield.
Early diagnosis of subclinical mastitis in cows using a Mas-D-Tec instrument allows revealing the disease at initial stages. Therefore, 60–70% of mastitis cases can be cured by treatment with «Udder Comfort» lotion without using antibiotics.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, population, milking herd, subclinical and clinical mastitis, somatic cells, udder, Mas-D-Tec instrument, «Udder Comfort» lotion, milk rejection, antibiotics, electric conductivity, sodium and chlorine ions.
The article discusses three options of calves’ keeping after birth: in prophylactorium calf house, in individual small house in open areas, or under nursing cows.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cattle, young animals, calf, prophylactorium period, feeding, feed, diet, individual cage, prophylactorium house, pen, microclimate, nursing bottle, watering, calf rearing, colostrum, milk, dyspepsia, vitamins, protein, fats, carbohydrates, antibodies, manure, small-stalked hay, concentrates, mixed feed, oil cake, oilseed meal, cereals, bran, solids, rumen, volatile fatty acids, starch, breeding stock, permanent bedding, straw, calving, obstetric prophylactic examination, delivery room, grazing period, loose keeping, disinfection, forage reserve, milking period, nursing cow, stall, live weight, udder, weight gain, productivity.
Principal causes of claw diseases are lack of keratinization-stimulating substances in feed, elevated humidity, aggressive alkaline environment in stalls, damage of horn capsule and soft tissues of extremities, adynamia and insufficient physical exercise, and also large-scale introduction of highly specialised dairy breeds of cattle with weak claw horn.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, heifer, claw horn, feed, keratinization, horn capsule, adynamia, physical exercise, productivity, lameness, culling, lactation, herd rotation, horn growth and wear, destruction, cross-linking reaction (polymerisation), sulphuric bridges, keratine chains, moisture capacity, hydrophilia, amino acids, cystine, ammoniac alkalis, keratopolymer, sulphur-containing vitamins, biotin, thiamin, methyl methionine, calf, young animals, replacement heifer, hydrokeratine, urease, lignin, orthopedic diseases, sole horn, breeding bull, hoof bath, antiseptic substances, veterinary unit, pen, necrobacteriosis, diet, herd.
Installation of brushes for mechanical cleaning and disinfection of nipples before milking as well as milking machines with function of nipple disinfection after milking improves udder treatment quality and provides uniformity of operation, which considerably reduces the number of cows suffering from mastitis.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, udder nipples, disinfectant, milking hall, milking, mechanical brushes, nipple disinfection, microorganisms, sprayer robot, teat cup, milking liner, milk flow, mastitis, bacterial count, somatic cells, mastitis prevention.
Errors in feeding highly productive cows frequently result not only in milk volume and quality drop, but also animal health deterioration.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, milk, animal, lactation, pregnancy, bacterial count, genetic potential, feeding management, feed, diet, milk yield, reproductive functions, palatability, digestibility, mixed feed, metabolic energy, protein, fibre, hay, silo, haylage, solids, urea, drying, feed reserve, mastitis, ketosis, acidosis, feed mix, microclimate, mycotoxins, feeding front, first-calf heifer, cow, heifer, calf, service period, cud, nutritious and biologically active substances, vitamins, rumen, cicatricial digestion, easily digested carbohydrates, feed mix sorting, feed conversion, thermal stress, dry period, increasing milk yield, deoxidants.