To lay foundation for high productivity of future cows, completely realize their genetic potential, and, above all, accustom young animals to large group housing, it is very important to determine correctly how to grow calves during the preweaning period.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, meat, milk, genetic potential, cow, calf, productivity, young animals, preweaning period, whole milk substitutes (WMS), vegetable feed, diet, calf rearing, fat, proteins, vitamins, mineral substances, feeding, digestive tract, compound feed, mineral nutrition, solids, heifer, silo, haylage; group, tied and loose housing; pedal-controlled automatic drinking trough, light concrete floor, feeding front, calf house, microclimate, herd replacement, cattle, fattening, dehorning.
Analysis of lifelong productivity of cows of different breeds grown in stud farms and nuclei allowed a conclusion that in the conditions of Russia the Holstein breed significantly falls short of the domestic Kostroma and Red Gorbatovsky breeds.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, calf, milk, animal, cattle, calving, pedigree identity, productive longevity, service period, milk yield, fat, protein, Black-and-White, Holstein, Kostroma, Yaroslavl, Kholmogory, Ayrshire, Red-and-White, Simmental, Red Gorbatovsky, Bushuyevsky, Tagil, Brown Swiss breed, lifelong productivity, breeding stock, live weight, feed, feeding, lactation, Holsteinized cattle, fat and protein content in milk, reproductive function, leucosis, hidden inbreeding, infertility, BLAD syndrome, genomic assessment, stud bull, accumulation cross breeding.
Dairy cattle diets can be optimized by increasing the amount of forage conservation and improving nutritious properties of grass feed as well as by use of high quality concentrated feed.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, feeding, diet, ruminants, productivity, milk, bulk and grain feed, compound feed, silo, haylage, hay, barley, wheat, rye, triticale, metabolic energy, crude protein, solids, trace elements, manganese, zinc, copper, iodine, cobalt, food supply, feed production, perennial herbs, grass mix, seeding, seed viability, overgrassing, cover crop, perennial leguminous grasses, timothy grass, clover, herbage, raw material conveyor, lucerne, birds-foot trefoil, eastern galega, fescue, awnless brome, reed canary grass, fibre, siloing, mycotoxins, grain haylage, pasture, stand, grazing, annual ryegrass, soy, lupine, vetch, peas, stall period, desoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fuminozin, aflatoxins, ochratoxins, citrinin, patulin, adsorbents, vitamins.
Regulation of behavioural responses of animals and competent use of biological and physiological features of their bodies makes it possible to increase productivity, reduce labour and housing costs as well as minimize a negative stressogenic impact of the environment.
Keywords: calving, cow, calf, amniotic sac, udder, smell, tactility, hearing, vision, grazing, suckling period, animal, behavioral deviations, acquired perversions, cattle, productivity, self-milking, feed, stud bulls, apathy, conditioned reflex, behavioural act, milking, feeding, milk yield, cud, ruminants, microclimate, herd, lactation, tactile interaction and voice communication, milk, milk yield, stress.
Tracking parameters of the environment, assessment of temperature and humidity index as well as preventive actions allow minimization of negative impact of thermal stress on cattle and improvement of livestock product quality and profitability of farms.
Keywords: thermal stress, cattle, meat and dairy cattle production, herd reproduction, cow, temperature and humidity index (THI), rumination, cicatricial digestion, fleshiness, milk, somatic cells, sweating and salivation, live weight, thermal control, feed mix, bulk feed, cud, acidosis, concentrates, calving, oxidative stress, immune system, infertility, fertility rate, heifer, pasture, grazing, mineral food, crude protein, by-pass protein, buffer mixes, yeast probiotics, cellulose, antioxidants, premixes, Alkocel R397, LEVUCELL® SC, Lallemand Animal Nutrition.
The main ways for correcting the work of reproductive system of cattle breeding stock are full-value feed and exercise, in particular, grazing in longstanding cultural pastures.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, breeding stock, cattle, cow, heifer, animal, uterine neck, ovaries, postnatal endometritis, endocrine system, purulent catarrhal endometritis, cow pregnancy, feed, feeding, ovarian dysfunction and hypofunction, calving, fibrinous and necrotic metritis, ovarian cyst, hypophysis, thyroid gland, gonadotrophins, corticosteroids, hypothalamus; luteinizing, follicle stimulating, luteotropic hormone, sexual cycle, neurosecretion, follicles, sexual excitement and estrus, ovulation, persistent yellow body, estrogen, estrone, estradiol, estriol, uterine tubes, mammary gland, progesterone, endometrium, lactation, sexual heat, teasing bull, diet, active exercise, grazing.
Use of NitroShureTM additive in diets of milk cows is an effective strategy allowing minimization of thermal stress effect on animal bodies and increase in profitability of farms.
Keywords: thermal stress, cow, dairy and meat cattle production, air temperature and humidity, temperature and humidity index (THI), thermally neutral zone, cattle, ruminants, productivity, milk yields, feed, feeding, diet, homeostasis, homeotermia, endocrine status, rumination, cud, rumen, bicarbonate, cicatricial buffer, compound feed, bulk feed, concentrates, nonprotein nitrogen, cicatricial liquid, cicatricial microorganisms, feed behavior, microbial protein, amino acids, fermentation, digestibility, feed conversion, NitroShureTM additive.
Studying behavioural responses in cows promotes competent herd management; thus, reduction of aggression in animals and improvement of milk productivity.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cattle, productivity, herd, population, milk, behavioural responses, hereditary factors, breed, orthogenesis, conditioned reflex, milking, cow, calves, cow calf, bull, stabled and tied housing, feed, feeding front, diet, smell, grazing, young animals, rumination, ruminants, overgrazing, aggression, temperament, herd hierarchy, milk yield, gregarious instinct.
The main reasons for claw horn diseases is lack of substances stimulating process of keratinization in feed, increased humidity, aggressive alkaline environment in stalls, injury of horn capsule and leg soft tissues, adynamia and lack of exercise as well as use of highly specialized dairy breeds of cattle with weak claw horn.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, cow, heifer, claw horn, feed, keratinization, horn capsule, adynamia, exercise, claw horn, productivity, lameness, culling, lactation, herd rotation, horn growth and abrasion, destruction, s cross-linking reaction, sulfuric bridges, keratin chains, moisture capacity, hydrophily, amino acids, cystine, ammoniac alkalis, keratopolimer, sulfur-containing vitamins, biotin, thiamine, methylmethionine, calf, young animals, replacement cow calf, hydrokeratin, urease, lignin, orthopedic diseases, plantar horn, breeding bull, hoof baths, antiseptic substances, veterinary station, pen, necrobacillosis, diet, herd.
Addition in diets for milking cows of protected amino acids, for example, methionine and lysine, allows offsetting deficiency of protein and optimizing the use of feed nitrogen by the animals.
Keywords: dairy cattle production, crude protein, protein digestible in rumen, protein indigestible in rumen, nitrogen, rumen, productivity, milk yield, cow, microbial protein, milk, solids, diet, feed, feeding, limiting amino acids, protected lysine and methionine, manure.